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Application of Time Series Models in Business Research: Correlation, Association, Causation

Time series models are used to determine relationships, spot patterns, and detect abnormalities and irregularities among data. We explore the application of time series analyses in business research by discussing the differences among correlation, association, and Granger causality and providing insight into their proper use in the sustainability literature. In statistics, two correlation coefficients are typically calculated. The first one is the Pearson correlation coefficient and the second is the Spearman correlation coefficient.

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