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Bridget Miller

Bridget Miller

1. How to clear space on your iPhone

We love our iPhone, but one of the challenges we encounter every day is making the most of its meagre 16GB of storage space. The fact that we manage this feat is all the more astonishing given that we had 64GB of space on the one before. (Thank heaven the iPhone 7 comes with a minimum of 32GB.)

In this article we share our top tips for managing the space available on your iPhone and for getting the most out of every last MB of storage space.

In the meantime, if you want to update to a new version of iOS but didn't have enough space, do not fear! YOU DON'T HAVE TO DELETE ANYTHING! Find out how: How to install iOS 10 without deleting anything.

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Plus: Don't miss our top iOS 10 tips article, and if you're struggling with battery life on your iPhone, read our top tips for getting more battery life from your iPhone.Finally, you can also make more space by using a wireless storage device with your iPhone - read more about the best Wi-Fi storage drives for iPhones and iPads.

2. How to clear space on iPhone: Delete apps you don't need

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This is an obvious and (mostly) straightforward place to start. There are bound to be apps you downloaded and only used once, or have replaced with something better. Ditch them. The benefit of deleting a few apps is that you could free up as much as 500MB with very little effort.

To delete an app from the Home screen, tap and hold on its icon and wait for it (and the other icons too) to start jiggling about - this means you're in Edit Mode. Then tap on the X in the left corner to delete the app. (Edit Mode also allows you to drag app icons into new positions on the screen.)

3. How to clear space on iPhone: Stocks, Game Center and other hard-to-delete app

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There are some apps that aren't so easy to delete because Apple ships the phone with them pre-installed - this includes Stocks, Game Center, Notes, Calendar and various more default apps. In the past, Apple has prevented iPhone and iPad owners from deleting these apps from their devices.

The good news is that since the launch of iOS 10 you've been able to delete some of the preinstalled apps, such as Stocks, FaceTime and Mail. Bear in mind, however, that you're really hiding the app rather than deleting it fully. The data associated with that app will be deleted, but this isn't likely to gain you very much space.

And not all apps are included in this feature. Tips, Maps, Watch and Weather can be removed, for example; Safari, Phone and Messages cannot.

For more on all this, read our complete guide: How to delete, remove or hide any iPhone or iPad app.

4. How to clear space on iPhone: Find out which apps are taking up most space

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Ahandy way of finding and deleting the apps that are taking up the most space is to go to Settings > General > Storage & iCloud Usage, then tap Manage Storage in the first section (STORAGE, rather than ICLOUD). Wait for the apps to appear under storage (it can take a minute or so for them to appear).

Your apps will be presented in order of how much space they take up. Anything near the top of the list that you don't use regularly should be a high priority for deletion.

Scroll through the list and be brutal. You will find the biggest space wasters at the top - probably your Photos and Music apps (the figure includes media that the app stores/organises as well as the app itself), but your Messages app may be there too if you receive a lot of text messages with images in them.

If an app you rarely use is taking up 300MB of space then delete it - you can always download it again for free if you want to. Once you have bought something it's tied to your Apple ID so Apple knows you own it.

5.How to clear space on iPhone: Delete Documents & Data you don't need from apps

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To look deeper into the storage space being taken up by apps, look again at Settings > General > Storage & iCloud Usage > Manage Storage and click on the arrow beside one of the apps listed there. This way you can see how much data is used by the app itself, and how much additional space is being used by documents & data.

For example, our Pages app has 4.9MB of data; with a little tidying up we could ensure that those documents saved on the iPhone were moved to the Cloud where we have a lot more space.

Are there any apps there that have data associated with them that you no longer need on your iPhone? For example, the iPlayer app is 46MB, but we have 512MB of data associated with it, which suggests we have downloaded some programs at some point that are still lurking inside the app.

Go to the iPlayer app and delete them.

6.How to clear space on iPhone: How to delete lots of messages at once

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While we're clearing out documents & data, here's another quick win: delete old messages from your iPhone. With less than a minute's work we reduced the space taken by messages from 2.2GB to just 112MB.

Deleting messages might sound like a long-winded process, but you don't need to do this individually. You can kill them quickly by telling iOS to purge any messages that have been on the device for longer than a stipulated period - anything older than 30 days, or anything more than a year old. You do this via Settings > Messages > Message History > Keep Messages, select a time parameter, then click Delete.

We look at this process in more detail in a separate article: read How to delete messages from an iPhone.

7.How to clear space on iPhone: Turn off Photo Stream

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If you have Photo Stream turned on you will see photos you have taken on your iPhone or iPad, and those you have uploaded to your Mac from your camera. These images aren't full res, but are still likely to take up a lot of space on your iPhone. If you could really do with that extra space then turn off Photo Stream.

Go to Settings > Photos & Camera and deselect My Photo Stream. This will delete your Photo Stream from your iPhone.

Unfortunately, it also means that your iPhone photos are no longer uploaded to your Photo Stream on your other devices. You can always turn it back on again after the storage issue has passed.

8. How to clear space on iPhone: Don't join other people's Photo Streams

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You can create and share photo streams with other people. This is a nice way to share images of events you attended with friends, or pictures of grandchildren with grandparents, but beware that if you join someone else's photo stream it may quickly fill up your iPhone.

Make sure you have Photo Sharing turned off in Settings > Photos & Camera.

There is also the new iCloud Photo Library, which lets you automatically upload and store your entire library in iCloud to access photos and videos on all your devices.

9. How to clear space on iPhone: Don't keep both photos when using HDR

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Your phone can use an HDR mode to capture better photos when the image would include bright lights and shadow. You can choose for your iPhone to keep the normal photo, which is handy if you have a slower iPhone - perhaps an iPhone 4, which can be a bit hit and miss with HDR mode due to the slower camera.

However, in newer iPhones we think HDR works well enough for you to be confident that the image you take will be better than it would be without HDR. So make sure that you aren't keeping the normal photo - go to Settings > Photos & Camera and deselect Keep Normal Photo.

10. How to clear space on iPhone: Sign up for iTunes Match

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You don't have to have every iTunes track you could ever possibly need to listen to on your iPhone. If you sign up for iTunes Match (for £21.99 a year) you will have every track you own available to you via the cloud. Therefore you can delete your music from your iPhone knowing that every song you may wish to listen to is but a download away.

Once you have signed up for Apple's service, all your music on all your Apple devices will be uploaded to iCloud (even tracks you have imported from CD). This means that you can download any track you fancy listening to on your iPhone whenever the mood takes you.

You can download a track or a whole album, or a whole playlist. Just click on the iCloud download icon. If you then want to delete the track from your iPhone, just swipe left on it, to delete. It will still be available to download from iCloud another time.

11. How to clear space on iPhone: Remove iBooks you aren't reading

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Do you have any iBooks downloaded on your iPhone? Do you need them to be there? If you delete them they will still be available in iCloud to download again, so why not save yourself a few MB by removing the novel you are reading on your iPad from your iPhone.

You can choose to Delete This Copy, rather than delete it from all your devices.

Also, check Settings > iTunes & App Store and stop Automatic Downloads of iBooks when you buy them on other devices.

12. How to clear space on iPhone: Check your photo-editing apps

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Do you use apps for photo editing. You may find that some old images are lurking within that you could delete.

We had 13.9MB worth of data in Camera+ so we loaded up the app and deleted the images in our Lightbox that we no longer needed - after all, we had already saved those ones we had edited to our camera roll.

Having done this we noticed that Camera+ had 17.1MB of data associated with it. Which was even more than we had before deleting the photos. Click to the next slide to find out what to do when this happens.

13.How to clear space on iPhone: Spring-clean your Notes

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We make a lot of notes in the Notes app on our iPhone. We wondered how much space we could save by deleting those we no longer need.

Unfortunately Notes doesn't appear in the Storage Usage list we were accessing from Settings > General > Usage. But we started with 4GB of storage available on our phone and having deleted a good selection, our phone memory still showed 4GB.

However, we managed to clear another 12MB using CM Security (which already claimed that we had 4.2GB to start with).

We'd conclude that for the amount of effort it's not really worth deleting individual Notes, but it may make a bit of a difference in desperate times.

14. How to clear space on iPhone: Delete old iMessages

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You can claim back quite a lot of space if you delete some of your old iMessages.

The iMessage app on our iPhone went from 512MB to 397MB and all we really did was delete marketing texts from the likes of O2 and Ikea.

We're not suggesting you delete whole iMessage conversations that you might want to go back to one day, but there are bound to be a few you really don't need.

15. How to clear space on iPhone: Delete photos you don't need

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Our Camera Roll is taking up 867MB of space on our iPhone. That's 150 photos, 3 panoramas, and 6 videos. If we hadn't turned off Photo Stream we could easily copy these images on to our Mac (we'll discuss various ways to automatically back up images on the next slide).

However, it is likely that you have images on your iPhone that you had no desire to keep. Perhaps, like us, you often take screen shots of train times when you are commuting. There is no need to keep these shots.

Similarly, if you've been using Burst Mode you may have hundreds of identical images you really don't need taking up space on your iPhone. Go through and delete photos and videos that you don't need.

16. How to clear space on iPhone: Turn off Burst Mode

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When you're taking a photo, you can hold down the shutter for slightly longer than normal and the camera will take a series of rapid shots. This is Burst mode. It's great for getting the absolute best action shot, but it does make for a lot of photos to get rid of afterwards, and is easy to activate by mistake.

Unfortunately it's not possible at present to turn off Burst Mode. This has frustrated a lot of people - some complain that their photos are now blurry because they have less control of the shutter, others find that burst mode quickly fills up the storage they have available.

We suggest that rather than tapping on the shutter button on the screen you use the volume control buttons on the side of your phone to take the photo, as it's easier to do a single tap that way.

17. How to clear space on iPhone: Use Photo Stream to back up photos

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We told you to turn off Photo Stream a few slides ago, but it might be the case that 1GB of Photo Stream images is worth the sacrifice for being able to easily back up the photos you take on your iPhone. Go to Settings > Photos & Camera and turn My Photo Stream on using the slider.

Now, as long as you have on Wi-Fi access every photo you take will appear in your Photo Stream on your iPhone and on any of your other devices you have set up to receive your Photo Stream. (When you turn it on the phone will download the last 1,000 images, it's likely to take a few minutes).

Now that the photos you are taking are appearing in your Photo Stream you can delete them from your Camera Roll. They will still be available to download on your other devices (at least until you have taken another 1,000 photos, pushing that one out of your allocated iCloud storage).

When you want to download the image to your Mac open iPhoto (or Aperture if that's what you use) and click on iCloud. You may need to wait for a moment while the Photo Stream updates itself, depending on how often you access the photo library on your Mac. Once the image you want appears, right click and choose Import.

You can also save the image to your iPad by tapping Select picking that image, and then tapping Add To and selecting an Album to add it to.

You can delete all the photos from your phone now without worrying about them being lost forever now.

Photo Stream is changing. So stay tuned for more information about how Photo Stream will upload all your photos on any device to the cloud so that you can access them on all your devices.

18. How to clear space on iPhone: Back up photos to Dropbox

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Using Photo Stream isn't the only way in which you can back up the photos you take on your iPhone instantly. You can use the Camera upload feature in Dropbox to have captured images copied directly from the iPhone to Dropbox.

We explain how to do this in this article: How to back up iPhone photos automatically. For more general backup advice, see How to back up an iPhone.

19. How to clear space on iPhone: Get a bit of space for a photograph

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Sometimes you may be confronted with a photo opportunity where in order to capture the moment you really don't have time to delete things from your iPhone.

Your camera app may be saying that you do not have enough space to take more photos, but there may still be a way.

If you open another of your camera applications and use the camera through that you may be able to take a few shots that you wouldn't be able to take otherwise. This is because some apps have access to memory that your camera app might not have. Try it, you never know.

20. How to clear space on iPhone: Optimise storage using iMyFone Umate

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As you've probably guessed by now, there are many ways to expand the storage of your iPhone when you start running low, but some methods may take quite a long time. However, there are a myriad of third-party apps available that'll make the process simpler and quicker. One of those apps is iMyFone Umate, an app for Mac and Windows that can free up a huge amount of space on your iPhone.

Simply plug your iPhone in, run the initial scan and the app will tell you how much free space you could potentially gain by clearing out temporary files, junk files, backing up and deleting photos, deleting large files and lastly, showcasing your entire app collection in one place for easy deletion of multiple apps.

Interestingly, the app offers the ability to compress your photos instead of completely deleting them. It backs the original photos up to your Mac or PC, then will compress your entire library to free up extra space (up to 75 percent according to the company).

You can grab a trial of iMyFone Umate for free, or you can pay $19.95 (around £15) for the full app.

Author: Karen Haslam

Source: http://www.macworld.co.uk/

9 Things Successful People Wish They Knew Earlier

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Source:  http://www.lifehack.org/

It has been said again and again that time is money. To this same sentiment, if time is wasted, then that is money wasted as well. Use any combination of these tools to stop wasting time and get back on track with your productivity. These tools will cut down on time spent doing things other than work while simultaneously streamlining your process for being more productive. Use them on your mobile and desktop device; you’ll have access whenever you need it so that you spend less time on the masses of small tasks that accumulate throughout the day.

1. Toggl

This simple tool is used for tracking time. All that you need to do is click the button for Toggl, and the timer will begin. It is a very simple yet effective way to track the time that it takes you to complete any number of tasks. The program will also allow you to view reports regarding the time and see how much time you are investing on different projects throughout the week or whatever specified amount of time.

2. Evernote

This app is capable of saving audio and text notes, setting reminders, uploading attachments, and organizing photos and all of these things can become synced across all mobile and desktop devices. There is a feature within the app that allows the user to clip items from the web and store them for later use. This app is perfect if you are regularly using multiple devices.

3. Hootsuite

Hootsuite has been around for a while and is the go-to program for those who manage multiple social media accounts. This program allows users to manage and monitor all of their activity on social media sites on one simple dashboard. Users can schedule posts, assign tasks to team members, measure performance, organize Twitter followers and lists, and so much more.

4. Google Drive

Along with Google Docs and Spreadsheets, Google drive assists in sharing and editing many types of files. Those who are members of a team can chat about projects and share notes within a specific document. It is free to use, so this revolutionary program should not be overlooked or missed out on.


This stands for “If This, Then That”. Essentially, this program allows you to create (or use existing) “recipes” that will connect apps and services to work together to complete a specified task. As an example, you can create an IFTTT recipe that will automatically upload your photos to Instagram to your Google Drive account. You will have the ability to create intricate integration without the need for programming experience. The use goes way beyond just social media. You can set up automatic emails to be sent if the weather forecasts suddenly indicate rain, or anything else.

6. Google Alerts

If you have ever wondered where your company or brand is being mentioned on the internet, Google Alerts has your back. You can receive an instant notification whenever your specified term is mentioned anywhere on the internet. This helps to keep marketing efforts in line as well as making sure that you are grabbing the links from anyone that is mentioning your business.

7. Unroll.Me

This program helps to organize your inbox by gathering all of your selected newsletters into a single email bundle that can be opened and read at a later date. It helps to hide annoying email clutter and can list all of your email subscriptions. The program comes with an unsubscribe button so that you can easily remove yourself from any list.

8. StayFocused

Perhaps this is the productivity tool to end all productivity tools. StayFocused is an unpaid extension for Chrome that will limit the amount of time that you can spend on websites that are deemed as time wasters, like Facebook. This tool can be totally customized; choose which websites to block, pick specific pages to be blocked, and how long to block them for.


Source:  http://www.lifehack.org

Google is well on its way from being a company synonymous with search and the web to a brand name well known for its hardware products. Now, there’s the Google Home smart speaker to compete with Amazon’s Echo, as well the company’s new flagship Pixel and Pixel XL smartphones. Verizon is only the authorized Pixel and Pixel XL seller in the US, besides the Play Store.

Author:  Nick Statt

Source:  https://www.yahoo.com/

Russian digital forensics firm Elcomsoft recently discovered that Apple’s mobile devices with enabled iCloud feature automatically transmit their users’ call logs to the company servers without any notification.

According to Elocomsoft the relayed information contains a list of calls made and received on the mobile device and also phone numbers, dates, times and duration of the calls. Furthermore, it is not only call logs that are sent to Apple’s servers, but calls made through WhatsApp, Viber, Skype and Facetime; with the data being stored by Apple for as long as 4 months.

Vladimir Katalov, CEO of Elcomsoft, told Sputnik that users are essentially left unaware of this feature because there’s no notification that call logs can actually be synched with iCloud. He also remarked that it’s hard to say exactly how legal this particular feature is in terms of privacy issues.

"To be honest, I haven’t read Apple’s privacy agreement completely – it is a very large document, about twenty pages or so. ofcourse it does mention that some of your information can be stored to iCloud. But there’s other document that shows and describes in detail what information stored in the iCloud can be shared by Apple with the law enforcement, by the legal request of course; and there’s no single mention of the call log synching there. Apple only says that they can provide law enforcement with iCloud backups, the information stored in the iCloud backups and some other data stored in the iCloud, but nothing about the calls," he said.

Katalov pointed out that such information could be of great interest to law enforcement agencies and that there are basically two ways for them to access that data.

"Law enforcement people can contact people directly and get all the information stored there; it is encrypted of course, but the thing is, everything stored in Apple’s iCloud (well, almost everything) is encrypted in the way that the encryption keys are stored along with the data, so there’s no problem for Apple to decrypt everything and provide the plain-text information. And the other way of course is to use the software like ours to get access to the information stored in iCloud, but in that case of course you will need iCloud credentials such as the Apple ID and password or the authentication token," Katalov explained.

He added that there are also two ways for iPhone users to protect their information, but each of these methods has its own drawbacks.

"The simplest, but probably not the most effective one is to disable iCloud completely; if you can't do that then at least enable th two-factor authentication for your account to make it harder for hackers to get at your information. But still, you have to know that law enforcement can access your information stored there regardless of whether the two-factor authentication is enabled or not," he surmised.

Author:  TECH

Source:  https://sputniknews.com

As the world turns to prophetic predictions, a Bulgarian blind psychic seems to have foreseen the future of the U.S., while predicting political aspects of the 2016 elections. The psychic was called Nostradamus from the Balkans" and her name was Baba Vanda.

Many of her predictions became increasingly popular after 1996 when she passed away - at 85 years old. The blind woman called a prophet apparently had an 85 percent success rate among her prediction, which makes people around the globe turn to her opinions whenever social or political events raise questions.

 The Blind Prophet Of the Balkans

Among the predictions that made her famous, the woman's idea that the 44th U.S. president will be African-American was by far the most popular. However, she also stated that the man who we know to have been Obama will be the last president of the U.S.

Other predictions included the idea that Muslim people would "invade" Europe in 2016. According to the blind woman ,the increased immigration rates will end in chemical warfare that will be employed against the European population as a result of this trend.

 Currently, people around the U.S. are thrilled to read about her predictions, especially the ones who do not acknowledge Donald Trump as their president. While this problem is related to the way people feel about their national political situation, the dead blind psychic has gained their attention.

The idea that Donald Trump is the man following "the last U.S. president" encourages people to follow the woman's predictions, and read the tremendous amount of information available online about her biography and her ideas, the self-claimed insights on what the world will go through.

Among her predictions, the economic crisis of 2008 was also very popular at that time .The fact that she suggested the economic implications of the Bush Jr. administration is no less than  Surprising, and believers in her gift worldwide had turned to her visions to a better understanding of what will follow.

 Baba Vanga: International Phenomenon

While her words were not always very specific when it came to the event she predicted, people always correlated the woman's words with occurrences from further in time.

"A huge wave will cover a big coast covered with people and towns," for instance, is a phrase that was used in correlation to the tsunamis in 2004.

While, from a scientific point of view, her predictions were merely words that were given context depending on the world's events, it is also true that she gained a lot of popularity, having the website baba-vanga.com exclusively dedicated to her art of predicting the future.

Author:  Livia Rusu

Source:  http://www.techtimes.com/

Monday, 14 November 2016 15:02

What You Need To Know About Passwords?

Choosing and managing passwords is the fundamental security measure in client’s control. Even if the application and it’s server is impenetrable, it means absolutely nothing if your password can be cracked by an average Joe.

You would think that all security conscious people would know how to protect themselves, but I frequently see cases like this:

CaliConnect’s Private PGP Key & Account Password Was “asshole209

Twitter– Launched & Hacked in 2 Hours (Password was: 123123123…)

Cantina Marketplace PWND: Admin Password was: “Password1” ?!

This tutorial contains explanations of password cracking when the server and client side are protected. These methods’ effectiveness highly depend on attacker’s processing power which we’ll analyze after attack methods.

If you just want to know easy way to be safe, jump to the ‘Easy way to manage strong passwords’.

Brute Force Attack

Brute-force attack is a technique of enumerating all possible password candidates and checking each one. This is no elegant attacking method, but sometimes it’s all that’s needed. This attack is feasible only for very weak passwords.

Dictionary Attack

Dictionary attack is a variant of brute force attack in which the attacker gathers all information about targeted password(s) and creates a ‘dictionary’. Dictionary is a customized list of password candidates, typically including a list of most common passwords first, dictionary words that are frequently used and some combinations. Next, the dictionary often contains all those words with common prefixes and suffixes such as numbers and punctuation signs.

Dictionary attacks are relatively easy to defeat by choosing a password that is not a simple variant of a word found in any dictionary. Many password cracking tools have built-in dictionaries. This page contains information on most popular tools, their dictionaries and collections of leaked password for analysis in one place.


Rainbow Tables

This attack is used when attacker owns the password database. It’s worth mentioning here because the complexity of your password will protect you even if the server is compromised. Protection wise, it’s enough to know that a strong password will do the trick here as well.

Skip this part if you just want to secure yourself without bothering with hashing, rainbow tables and salting.

Databases don’t contain plaintext passwords, but password hashes. Hash is the result of time-consuming function that obfuscates the input. When you enter your password, server calculates the hash of the entered value and compares it to the one stored in the database for the confirmation.

Very simple hash function example: take number 4 as the input: square it (16), take natural log (2.7725), multiply by pi (8.7103) and take factorial (gamma function) -> 189843.119. Now ask your friend how is 189843.119 related to 4. Chances are, no one can figure it out.

Password hashes often look like this one: qiyh4XPJGsOZ2MEAyLkfWqeQ

So, when an attacker compromises the password database he won’t be able to figure out your password (or will he?, read on). Here’s when rainbow table comes in – it’s a pre-computed table of passwords and their hashes. Attacker then compares the rainbow table hashes to those in the database. If hashes match, the password is discovered. Here’s a short example:

This is what we can find in a database:

User Password
RegularUser1 HgkHJgKHgKhKGhjfhgKvkGjKG
Administrator qiyh4XPJGsOZ2MEAyLkfWqeQ

Lets try to find this hash in the rainbow table:

Password Hash
password asdh4DFGsOZ2MEAyLkfWqES
qwerty qi8H8R7OM4xMfdMPuRAZxlY
pass1234 GsOZ2MEAM4xPuRAZxlqiyAFiy
passw0rd qiyh4XPJGsOZ2MEAyLkfWqeQ
abcdefgh nKv3LvrdAVtOcE5EcsGIpYBtniN

That’s why some servers ‘salt’ the hash by adding random value into the equation so the attacker can’t just download finished rainbow table, he needs to create a custom one for that salt and that requires a lot of time because hash functions are time-consuming. If different salt is used for each password, attacker needs to create a custom table for each password which is not feasible. Salt is stored next to the password, it’s no secret since it’s just making the attacker’s computer do a lot of ‘work’.

There’s only that much server side can do for you, it’s up to you to choose a strong password. If the attacker targets you specifically, he may create a rainbow table for your salt. It’s up to you to have a password that will not be in his table.

I’m surprised how many sensitive web services allow having weak password.

Practical analysis of these attacks

Analyzed time represents offline attack speed, online attacks are much slower than this, but it’s logical to seek for a password strong enough for offline attacks because it’s the maximum speed and it’s just a few characters away.

Password complexity depends on 2 characteristics: length and number of different characters. For example, if you use 8 digit password (only numbers – 10 characters): _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ each field can contain 10 different characters, so there are 10*10*10*10*10*10*10*10 = 108 possible combinations. If attacker has a Pentium 4D, 3.2 Ghz processor he can try 2 million passwords per second. That means the password can be broken in 108 / (2*106) = 50 seconds.

Formula for the number of combinations the attacker need to try:

Awhere: A – number of different possible characters

B – password length

If password length is unknown, the attacker will usually try only the shortest ones. Let’s say he wants to try all 8,9,10 characters long passwords, the number of combinations is: A+ A9 + A10 .

Exponential growth

Luckily for us, password complexity rises exponentially when length increases. In the example above (only 10 digits) each extra character adds 10 times more possible combinations.

Here’s a table for passwords that contain only lower-case letters from English alphabet and digits – 36 different characters (Combinations = 36 ^ length):

Length (B) Combinations (36B) Individual capability 5000x individual
1 34 < 1 second < 1 second
2 1 296 < 1 second < 1 second
3 46 656 < 1 second < 1 second
4 1 679 616 < 1 second < 1 second
5 60 466 176 30 seconds < 1 second
6 21 76 782 336 18 minutes 1 second
7 78 364 164 096 10 hours 55 seconds
8 2 821 109 907 456 16 days 33 minutes
9 101 559 956 668 416 1 year 20 hours
10 3 656 158 440 062 976 60 years 30 days
11 131 621 703 842 267 136 2140 years 3 years
12 4 738 381 338 321 616 896 77025 years 110 years

X axis – password length in for 36 charset (letters and numbers)

Y axis – days to crack

Blue – Time in the first case was an experiment with previously mentioned Pentum 4D, 3.2 Ghz processor, affordable processing power for an individual.

Red – Time in the second case represents someone that can use 5 000 such processors.

We can see length 12 is sweet, it’s even more safe if we expand the character set to uppercase and lowercase letters, numbers and punctuation signs. Number of possible characters is 126:

Length (B) Combinations (126B) Individual capability 5000x individual
1 126 < 1 second < 1 second
2 15 876 < 1 second < 1 second
3 20 00 376 1 second < 1 second
4 252 047 376 2 minutes < 1 second
5 31 757 969 376 4 hours 22 seconds
6 4 001 504 141 376 23 days 47 minutes
7 504 189 521 813 376 8 years 4 days
8 63 527 879 748 485 376 1 032 years 2 years
9 8 004 512 848 309 157 376 130 000+years 184 years

X axis – password length in 126 charset

Y axis – days to crack

Blue – Time in the first case was an experiment with previously mentioned Pentum 4D, 3.2 Ghz processor, affordable processing power for an individual.

Red – Time in the second case represents someone that can use 5 000 such processors.


Using only lowercase or only uppercase letters and numbers, you need 11 characters long password.

If you’re using both lowercase and uppercase letters, numbers and punctuation signs you need 8 characters long password.

Neither should be predictable enough to be part of a dictionary attack list. I would recommend using 12 characters long password and wide charset.

Easy way to Manage Strong Passwords

Different password should be used for each sensitive account because attackers often check all your accounts for password they compromised.

Password should be at least 12 characters long and include uppercase and lowercase letter, number and a punctuation sign. You can easily meet those requirements by rambling on the keyboard, but it would be difficult to remember passwords.

Password Manager

Password manager allows the user to use hundreds of different passwords, and only have to remember a single password, the one which opens the encrypted password database. Needless to say, this single password should be strong and well-protected (not recorded anywhere).

Most password managers can automatically create strong passwords using a cryptographically secure random password generator, as well as calculating the entropy of the generated password. A good password manager will provide resistance against attacks such as key logging, clipboard logging and various other memory spying techniques.

To generate 1 strong password that’s easy to remember you can use a great source of entropy – your mind. Think of a sentence or two. Something like: ‘any sentence will do the trick, Just Make Sure It’s Over 12 Words’. Password would be: aswdtt,JMSIO12W (first letters in each word). You can remember the sentence easily and recreate the password later. Ideally, the sentence would include a sign and number.

There are many similar tricks out there if you don’t like this one.


So you don’t like installing a manager? Think of a good pattern that will not be obvious. An example would be: pick 2 numbers: 6,7 and surround your password with 67 and shift+6 = &, shift+7 = /. Also, uppercase 6thand 7th letter. If your password right now is password -> 67passwORd&/ is easy to remember and strong. The word can be something you can remember for each site, but stay away from obvious like domain name.

Avoid common letter-number substitutions like o – 0, I – 1. Here’s the same link once again, I highly recommend taking a look at common dictionaries and tools attackers may try to use against you.

Source:  deepdotweb.com

Whenever you surf the web, sophisticated algorithms are tracking where you go, comparing you with millions of other people. They're trying to predict what you'll do next: Apply for a credit card? Book a family vacation?

At least 40 percent of universities report that they're trying some version of the same technology on their students, according to several recent surveys. It's known as predictive analytics, and it can be used to either help or hurt students, says a new report from the New America Foundation.

The dangers come from the possibility of discrimination, invasions of privacy and groups of students being stigmatized, the authors, Manuela Ekowo and Iris Palmer, write. There can also be a lack of transparency when decisionmaking is turned over to an opaque computer program.

But a happy story cited in the report comes from Georgia State University, a large public university in Atlanta with more than 24,000 undergrads. Of those students, 60 percent are nonwhite, and many are from working-class and first-generation families.

As with many public universities, resources for student advising are limited. Large institutions tend to have staggering caseloads; a few years ago, GSU's ratio was 700 students per advisor.

The challenge facing the university was: Can we apply predictive modeling to make better use of those advisors' time and get more students across the finish line?

With the help of an outside consulting firm, GSU analyzed 2.5 million grades earned by students in courses over 10 years to create a list of factors that hurt chances for graduation. The university then built an early-warning system, with the initials GPS, for Graduation and Progression Success. The system is updated daily and includes more than 700 red flags aimed at helping advisors keep students on track to graduation.

For example, an advisor gets an alert when:

  • A student does not receive a satisfactory grade in a course needed in his or her major. Timothy M. Renick, a GSU vice president who runs the project, gives this example: Among declared political science majors who get an A or B in their first political science class, 75 percent go on to graduate. If you get a C, your chances plummet to 25 percent.
  • A student does not take a required course within the recommended time.
  • A student signs up for a class not relevant to his or her major.

This wasn't just a tech fix. At the same time that it implemented GPS, Georgia State hired 42 additional academic advisors, bringing its caseload down to 300 to 1.

The university also centralized operations and information sharing and expanded resources like peer tutoring. In fact, says Renick, more than 90 percent of the cost of the project was in staffing, not in the spiffy new computer system.

A GPS alert doesn't put a student on academic probation or trigger any automatic consequence. Instead, it's the catalyst for a conversation.

The system prompted 51,000 in-person meetings between students and advisors in the past 12 months. That's three or four times more than was happening before, when meetings were largely up to the students.

The real work was in those face-to-face encounters, as students made plans with their advisors to get extra tutoring help, take a summer class, or maybe switch majors.

The results have been dramatic.

  • Graduation rates are up six percentage points since 2013.
  • Graduates are getting that degree an average half a semester sooner than before, saving an estimated $12 million in tuition.
  • Low-income, first generation and minority students have closed the graduation rate gap.
  • And those same students are succeeding at higher rates in tough STEM majors.

Not surprisingly, representatives from more than 200 colleges have visited GSU in the last two years to try to copy the secret sauce. Renick says he tells them not to be distracted by the computer part of the equation.

"Some campuses get fixated on the coolness of analytics," he says. "Unless you have the commitment to staff, organize and deploy the kind of resources that students will need in a timely way, this won't work."

Source : npr.org


NASA's Juno spacecraft became the first ever to fly above and below Jupiter on Aug. 27, and at a breakneck speed of 130,000 mph.

Scientists say the images of the gas giant's north and south poles— the first ever taken — are "like nothing we have seen or imagined before," according to a statementabout the mission that NASA released on Sept. 2.

jupiter aurora juno nasaAn aurora, photographed in infrared light, is seen swirling in Jupiter's southern pole.NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI/MSSS

While we're absolutely obsessed with these unprecedented views of the largest planet in the solar system, a huge part of the pinwheel-shaped spacecraft's mission is to record data about unseen processes that are happening in and around Jupiter.

Take, for example, Jupiter's auroras.

NASA has managed to capture views of these particle storms in Jupiter's clouds using the Hubble Space Telescope.

No spacecraft has manage to get as close to them as Juno, though, and record them with a suite of powerful instruments.

In addition to taking a fearsome-looking infrared image of a southern Jovian aurora with an instrument called JIRAM, Juno turned on at least seven other instruments to gather data.

NASA then turned this invisible information into animated video with sound, the space agency wrote in a YouTube video description:


"Thirteen hours of radio emissions from Jupiter's intense auroras are presented here, both visually and in sound. The data was collected when the spacecraft made its first orbital pass of the gas giant on Aug 27, 2016, with all spacecraft instruments turned on. The frequency range of these signals is from 7 to 140 kilohertz. Radio astronomers call these 'kilometric emissions' because their wavelengths are about a kilometer long."

Watch and listen to the very eerie result below (the audio starts at about 0:26).

And if you're into other hidden visual spectacles, gaze at this incredible animated movie of Jupiter's aurora, which the JIRAM instrument also recorded.

It looks like a mashup of classic scenes from "2001: A Space Odyssey" and "The Terminator":


And if you're into other hidden visual spectacles, gaze at this incredible animated movie of Jupiter's aurora, which the JIRAM instrument also recorded.

It looks like a mashup of classic scenes from "2001: A Space Odyssey" and "The Terminator":

Source: businessinsider.com




One night a young Palestinian man living abroad fell victim to an online scam, involving a web camera and a beautiful woman. Here Samir (not his real name) tells the story of how he was trapped - and below the BBC's Reda el Mawy visits the Moroccan boomtown where many of the scammers are based.

WARNING: this story contains descriptions of sexual acts

It happened when I was home alone. This girl added me on Facebook. I didn't think it was anything strange - I often get friend requests from old school friends who I don't know well.

The next day she sends me a message: "Hi, how are you? I saw your profile and I liked you." So I looked at her profile and, I mean, she was really hot.

That night she starts messaging me via Skype. She says she's 23, her parents are dead, and she lives with her older sister in Sidon, Lebanon. She says she's bored because she doesn't study or work and that her sister is very strict. I ask her about her hobbies and she says she likes sex. She loves it, she says.

"Hmm," I thought, "this is interesting." At this point I am curious but unsure, because it's strange how easily she's talking about sex with a stranger. But I was bored, my girlfriend was out of town, and didn't have anything to do. So I figured, "What the hell, I'll chat with this girl and see where it goes."

Eventually she asks if I have a webcam. So I turn on my video and say, "Can I see you too?" She turns on her video and when I see her, you know, she is a really beautiful girl. With a girl like this, you lose your head.

We continue chatting, but only in messages, not actually speaking. She says she's afraid her sister will hear her. As we're chatting she tells me that talking with me is turning her on. I'm thinking because she lives with her strict sister, in the south of Lebanon rather than in a more open place like Beirut, maybe she's frustrated and looks for sexual encounters online.

Then she asks me to show her my penis. So I show her my penis. Then I say, "OK, your turn." She lies on the bed, undresses, and starts masturbating. I'd never seen anything like it. It was so easy. Too good to be true.

So I start masturbating too. She tells me to put the camera on my face because it excites her, so I move the camera back and forth between my face and my penis. After a few minutes she pretends to have an orgasm. Still naked, she comes back to the keyboard to chat with me. She asks me what I do, and I tell her I work in marketing in Milan.

"Oh, so you must be rich!" she says.

"Well, I get by," I say.

Then she says she hears her sister coming, so she gets dressed and signs off.

A half hour later I get a message on Facebook. "Listen," it says, "I'm a man, and I recorded a video of you masturbating. Do you want to see it?" He sends me the video. It's about five minutes of me masturbating.

"I have a list of your friends and family from Facebook - your mum, your sister, your cousins," he says. "You have one week to send me to send me 5,000 euros (£4,450), or I'll send them the video."

I was in shock. My first thought was to send him the money immediately. But I cancel her, or him, as a Skype contact and right away I get a message on WhatsApp.

"I'm here," it says.


Shame season logo

This is one of a series of stories looking at a new and disturbing phenomenon - the use of private or sexually explicit images to threaten, blackmail and shame young people, mainly girls and women, in some of the world's most conservative societies. Explore all the stories and join the conversation here.

So I plead with him. I tell him I don't have 5,000 euros. He says, "Of course you do, you have a good job in Europe." "No," I tell him, "that was a lie, just to impress the girl, I'm just a pizza delivery guy."

Then I remember a photo I had sent her of me tiling my bathroom and I say, "Look, do you think if I were some rich guy I'd tile my own bathroom?"

He's sort of convinced by this and says, "That may be true, but I don't care. You have one week to send me 2,000 euros. Otherwise, I'm sending the video to your family."

I try to calm down and think rationally. If I send him money, what is to stop him from coming back and demanding more?

Then it occurs to me that if he sends the video to my contacts - people he isn't friends with - it will go to a junk inbox that no-one checks. And even if they check it, I figure, who is going to open a video file from an unknown person? It could be a virus. So I have two choices: I send him the money and I have no guarantee he doesn't ask for more, or I refuse and hope no-one looks at the video.

The day comes, though, when he messages me and says, "OK, I'm about to upload the video to YouTube."

"Upload it," I tell him. "I don't care any more."

Then I change my privacy settings so no-one can post to my wall or tag me without my consent.

Then he sends me the link to the video on WhatsApp. I watch it again. It's me masturbating, on YouTube. I feel sick to my stomach.

Immediately I start reporting the video to YouTube for sexual content. I report it, close the page, reload the link, and report it again. Over and over.

Man watching YouTubeImage copyrightAFP

He sends me a message saying he's about to send the link to my relatives on Facebook if I don't pay.

"Go ahead," I tell him, "send it."

I couldn't pay him. First 2,000 euros, then perhaps 5,000. Where would it end? He was so upset. He starts sending me insults, telling me he'll send the video to my mother, to everyone I know.

I keep reporting the video. Each time I'm watching the number of views to see if anyone else has viewed it. After about an hour YouTube takes the video down.

From what I can tell, all the views were mine, except for one. That could have been him

viewing it after he uploaded it, or one of my relatives. I'll never know for sure, but I've never heard from anyone. Maybe a male relative saw it and never told anyone.

Can you imagine, though, if an aunt had seen it? She would have told another aunt, her husband, her kids, soon my whole family would have known. I have family all over the world, the US, Canada, Australia, Saudi Arabia, the Gulf states, Europe.

And what if my mum sees this? A video of me masturbating. I would have thrown myself out the window from the shame.

After the video was taken down I didn't hear from the guy again. I imagine he moved on to bigger fish. I remember when I asked why he was picking on a poor young guy like me he had said, "You think I don't target rich guys in the Gulf states? Of course I do. You're lucky I can see from your Facebook page you're not married, or I would be asking for a lot more money."

I think it's over, but every now and then I check YouTube to see if he's re-uploaded it.

Omar, the scammer

Reda el Mawy writes: The "23-year-old Lebanese girl" who seduced Samir on Skype was almost certainly a young man from Oued Zem - a small town in central Morocco that has become known as the capital of the "sextortion" industry.

The Oued Zem scammers trawl Facebook for victims, and as soon as a man answers a video call - either on Skype or, increasingly, within Facebook itself - they activate software that shows the victim a pre-recorded video of a girl downloaded from a porn webcam site.

Map of Morocco

They are so familiar with this video that they are able to chat-message their victims at exactly the points where the girl appears to be typing on the keyboard.

"We ask him to take off his clothes and to do obscene gestures," says one young scammer I will call Omar.

"It's crucial that his genitals are visible while he's doing these gestures. This is filmed with his face on screen so the video looks credible. When we've got the recording we upload it to YouTube and send it to him in a private message. That's when the threatening starts. We spend 20 minutes chatting, 20 minutes for the video, and 20 minutes threatening - threatening and negotiating. They all pay."

He adds: "The weak point of Arabs is sex. So you look for their weaknesses, and you exploit them. The other weakness is when they are married, for example. You can exploit that. Then there are the really religious guys. You see someone who looks like a sheikh, carrying the Koran, and you think, 'There's no way he'll fall for this - but let's try him anyway.' And when you try, he falls for it."

Omar says he earns about $500 (£400) every day from the scam, and that hundreds of other young men in Oued Zem are doing the same.

I counted at least 50 international money transfer offices in the town. The manager of one of these offices told me that he took in about $8,500 (£7,000) every day, and that the vast majority of that was blackmail money. There are German cars and Japanese motorbikes in the streets, and fancy café-restaurants that provide a front for families that need an explanation for their new-found wealth.

In the UK, Wayne May runs an online community, Scam Survivors, that offers advice and support to victims of the webcam masturbation racket. Since 2012 he has received more than 14,000 requests for help from victims all over the world, including the UK and the US. Many are young Arab men, he says, and about a third of all the scams originate in Morocco.

Oued Zem

Before the advent of social media, Oued Zem was largely reliant on remittances from people working in Europe. But with the economic crash of 2008, remittances dropped - and this was exactly the moment that Facebook and webcams were becoming everyday tools of communication.

Salaheddin El-Kennan, a labour activist, does not blame the town's young men for making money from extortion. He points the finger at the state-owned company that mines phosphate in the surrounding countryside but employs very few local people.

"I chose not to go down the route of scamming because I consider it incompatible with our Moroccan and Islamic values," he says.

"But unemployment rates in our town are higher than in the rest of Morocco. Nationally, unemployment is at 8.7%, while in our town we estimate that it's as high as 60%. With the lack of employment, and no apprenticeship schemes in the city, many people look for other ways to make money."

Omar said he was not proud of what he does, and that he wanted to stop scamming.

Intelligent, articulate, and technologically adept, it is hard to avoid the conclusion that in a place with more opportunities a young man of Omar's talents could find a legitimate way to earn his $500 a day.

Reporting by Sean O'Neill, Reda el Mawy, and Daniel Silas Adamson

Source : bbc.com


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